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Manoj Rao

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As noted in the yesterday’s blog post I have started staring at a large C++ codebase.

I am, largely, used to doing so at the beautiful code written in the Linux Kernel. The reason the codebase in the Linux Kernel is beautiful is at multiple layers.

Linux Kernel Code

If you haven’t done so already, I urge you to go through the following guide for The Linux Kernel Coding Style it will make too much sense.

Without delving into the details of the specific style guidelines themselves I want to bring up a few points.

First - the syntax

For a majority of the case, The syntax of C is exceedingly simple. If you are a programmer, getting past “the pointer wall” is going to take a couple of days but beyond that everything else is pretty straight forward. The 8 space tab width might seem excessive but it makes reading code easier on the eye and the brain since the brain can automatically go to deeper levels of nesting without getting lost.

Second - consistency

The Linux Kernel is one of the most readily reviewed codebases of all the open source projects. Multiple people go through your patch in an organic fashion and anything out of sorts is going to be underlined, possibly by multiple developers. This is particularly true if the patch is touching any parts of the Kernel that is crucial to other components. A sure way to get your patch rejected is by being incosistent with the rest of the codebase, either in naming variables or operating on the data structures.

But the title said ‘C++’

You are thinking that the title says something something C++. Yes, my round about point is as I was looking at the codebase I wanted to make a simple change. The situation in the code is that the code keeps track of certain weights. It stores this in a map where the resource type is the key and weight is the value. Here the weight is equivalent of the popularity of the resources in question. I wanted to add a change which required to implement an API that requests for the resources ordered by their popularity.

Here’s the code. Remember that I have changed the following snippet significantly from the original source.

There’s a lot going on with the code here, let’s try to unravel bit by bit.

// pop_map is the map containing 
// resources and their popularities
using map_pair_type = decltype(pop_map)::value_type;
	std::begin(pop_map), std::end(pop_map),
	[] (const map_pair_type & p1, const map_pair_type & p2) {
		return p1.second < p2.second;

for (auto d : pop_map) {

return pop_resources;


decltype() takes an expr and predicts the type of the expr. All the dynamically typed languages provide this as a necessity to help the developer during the not-so-occassional mishap. For example, Python provides type() and Ruby .class(). There is also a very nice command utility called cdecl that you should download and play with for limitless fun.

Case in point.

cdecl> explain int *(*foo)(int *[][][])[]
declare foo as pointer to function (array of array of array of pointer to int) returning array of pointer to int


map::value_type returns pair<const key_type, mapped_type>. This always results in a it.first and it.second pair containing the key and value respectively.

Powerful sort() method

Here we are trying to sort a container which is not single dimensional (since it’s a map, it has a hierarchy that cannot be simply iterated over like an array or a vector). The condition or the predicate to be applied to this sorting can be non-trivial. For illustration, I have modified this situation to keep it simple here where the values are simply the weights or the popularity of the resources. However, the compare function is passed as a lambda function. Although simple to understand, the snippet above achieves a sizeable amount of code logic in a relatively small piece of code which could have spanned multiple functions and multiple fragmented data structures if implemented in vanilla C.

To be respectful to all the C-wizards out there (and there are many!), it might be possible to write succinct looking C code to achieve the same. But what is possible is not always feasible. With this, I will make a shocking inference, choose the right tool for the job.

Happy New Year 2020!

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